India may acquire 3 new French built Scorpene class submarines

According to information published by Swarajyamag on July 10, 2023, a contract for 26 Rafale-M jets and three Scorpene-class submarines is expected to be signed during Prime Minister Narendra Modi's visit to France.
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Russian Vyborg Shipyard laid the Purga ice class coastguard ship of project 23550 925 001 Commissioning ceremony of the Kalvari class submarine INS Vagir. (Picture source: Indian MoD)

The Indian Navy operates a variety of submarines that are currently in service. These submarines are either nuclear-powered or diesel-electric, and they serve different functions within the Navy. Below is a breakdown of the submarines currently in service.

Nuclear-Powered Submarines (2)

1. Arihant Class (Ballistic Missile Submarine - SSBN)
        . INS Arihant (S2)
        . INS Arighat (S3)

The Arihant Class submarines are India's first indigenously developed nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines. They represent a significant milestone in India's quest for a credible sea-based nuclear deterrent.

INS Arihant (S2) and INS Arighat (S3) both have a displacement of 6,000 tonnes. These submarines are capable of carrying nuclear-armed ballistic missiles, providing India with second-strike capability. The Arihant class submarines form a key component of India's nuclear triad, along with land-based and air-launched nuclear weapons.

Diesel-Electric Submarines (16)

1. Kalvari Class (Scorpène-Class - Attack Submarine)
        . INS Kalvari (S21)
        . INS Khanderi (S22)
        . INS Karanj (S23)
        . INS Vela (S24)
        . INS Vagir (S25)

These submarines were built in collaboration with France and each has a displacement of 1,775 tonnes.

2. Shishumar Class (Type 209 Submarine - Attack Submarine)
        . INS Shishumar (S44)
        . INS Shankush (S45)
        . INS Shalki (S46)
        . INS Shankul (S47)

The Shishumar Class submarines are built under a collaboration between India and West Germany. They are capable of carrying a mix of torpedoes and anti-ship missiles, giving them a versatile combat capability.

Each submarine has a displacement of 1,850 tonnes. These submarines were scheduled for a mid-life refit in 2020-21 to upgrade their capabilities and extend their service lives.

3. Sindhughosh Class (Kilo-Class - Attack Submarine)
       . INS Sindhughosh (S55)
       . INS Sindhuraj (S57)
       . INS Sindhuratna (S59)
       . INS Sindhukesari (S60)
       . INS Sindhukirti (S61)
       . INS Sindhuvijay (S62)
       . INS Sindhurashtra (S65)

The Sindhughosh Class submarines were built in collaboration with the Soviet Union and Russia. They are designed for anti-ship and anti-submarine warfare in the protection of naval bases, coastal installations and sea lanes, and also for general reconnaissance and patrol missions.

Each submarine has a displacement of 3,076 tonnes. Sindhuraj and Sindhukesari are currently undergoing a mid-life refit, while Sindhughosh was scheduled for a refit in 2020. These refits aim to update and improve the submarines' systems and equipment.